The Climate in Turkey

Turkey is a huge country, straddling Europe, Asia and several climate zones. As such, it's impossible to specify climate or weather conditions for Turkey as a whole. Some parts of Turkey are arid, some perpetually damp. Some can be scorching hot and some can find you wading through snow!

So, instead, we’ll take a look at the seven regions of Turkey. Truth be told, even the regions are large enough and varied enough in weather and climate to make it worth your while to check out the average climate in specific cities – but this guide should give you some idea of what you’ll experience.

The date below was gathered from many sources, but a particular thank you to Holiday Weather.

Regional climates

Marmara Region (Istanbul)

Climate of the Marmara Region

Marmara has a moderate, mediterranean/sub-tropical climate. The summer climate is hot, sometimes humid, but not scorching. Winter weather is chilly and wet, with occasionally heavy snowfall. Winter can also bring violent storms from the sea, often disrupting travel and damaging property on the coast.

Average minimum/maximum temperature in Istanbul (°C)

MonthMin (°C)Max (°C)
January39
February39
March411
April817
May1221
June1626
July1928
August1929
September1625
October1220
November915
December511

Average precipitation in Istanbul (mm)

Monthmm precipitation
January98
February80
March70
April46
May36
June34
July39
August48
September61
October97
November111
December124

 

Central Anatolia Region (Ankara)

Climate of the Central Anatolia Region

The Central Anatolia Region has reasonably hot weather in the summer and cold winters. The region has low levels of precipitation and crops can be badly affected during drought years – which happen often due to both natural climate and over-exploitation of water.

Average minimum/maximum temperature in Ankara (°C)

MonthMin (°C)Max (°C)
January-72
February-54
March-210
April316
May720
June924
July1328
August1328
September824
October418
November-111
December-34

Average precipitation in Ankara (mm)

Monthmillimetres
January40
February31
March36
April51
May52
June39
July17
August15
September18
October32
November36
December48

 

Aegean region (İzmir)

Climate of the Aegean Region

The coastal areas of the Aegean regions are very mild – the summers are hot and dry while the winter weather is warm with light rainfall. The region is verdant and pleasant all year round. Further inland, winter can bring more chilly spells – and, with them, snowfall.

Average minimum/maximum temperature in İzmir (°C)

MonthMin (°C)Max (°C)
January613
February613
March817
April1221
May1626
June2031
July2333
August2333
September1929
October1524
November1118
December814

Average precipitation in İzmir (mm)

Monthmillimetres
January125
Febraury98
March79
April48
May26
June11
July9.6
August4.6
September35
October52
November111
December135

 

Mediterranean Region (Antalya)

Climate of the Mediterranean region

As you may have guessed, the the Turkish Mediterranean region boasts the typical Mediterranean climate. The summers are hot, dry and often cloudless. Winter brings rain, wind and storms – especially on the coast – but temperatures rarely drop below 5°C. The sea is perfect for a dip between May and October, when the water temperature is around 28°C.

Average minimum/maximum temperature in Antalya (°C)

MonthMin (°C)Max (°C)
January615
February615
March818
April1122
May1526
June1931
July2235
August2234
September1931
October1527
November1021
December716

 

Average precipitation in Antalya (mm)

Monthmillimetres
January227
February139
March100
April61
May32
June9
July6
August5
September16
Octover86
November172
December269

 

Black Sea Region (Zonguldak)

Climate of the Black Sea region

The Black Sea region is the only region of Turkey with a consistently high level of rainfall. The summers are humid and the winters are damp. This has led to a rich abundance of flora and fauna which send people flocking to the mountains of the region. Snowfall is a fairly common occurence between December and March – and it can get quite heavy. The sea is cool (with temperatures of between 8°C and 20°C).

Average minimum/maximum temperature in Zonguldak (°C)

MonthMinMax
January49
February39
March511
April815
May1219
June1623
July1825
August1825
September1522
October1218
November815
December511

 

Average precipitation in Zonguldak (mm)

Monthmillimetres
January133
February86
March88
April58
May51
June71
July81
August88
September123
October153
November147
December154

 

Southeastern Anatolia Region (Şanlıurfa)

Southeastern Anatolia Region

The Southeastern Anatolia region’s long, hot, dry summers lead into cold, wet winters with occasional snowfall. Although the temperatures at the height of summer can often reach 40°C, the low humidity ensures the hottest months stay bearable.

Average minimum/maximum temperature in Şanlıurfa (°C)

MonthMin (°C)Max (°C)
January210
February312
March617
April1122
May1629
June2135
July2539
August2438
September2034
October1527
November818
December412

 

Average precipitation in Şanlıurfa (mm)

Monthmillimetres
stringnumber
Jan74
Feb74
March63
April43
May27
June5
July3
Aug5
Sept7
Oct28
Nov49
Dec76

 

Eastern Anatolia Region (Erzurum)

Climate of the Eastern Anatolia Region

Eastern Anatolia – mainly landlocked and with mountains and plateaus galore – has the harshest climate of Turkey’s regions. The winters are long and very cold, with a lot of snowfall. Summers are short and mild, with the warmest temperatures found on the lowlands.

Average minimum/maximum temperature in Erzurum (°C)

MonthMin (°C)Max (°C)
January-15-4
February-14-3
March-73
April012
May417
June722
July1027
August1028
September523
October115
November-57
December-11-1

 

Average precipitation in Erzurum (mm)

Monthmillimetres
January20
February24
March33
April58
May70
June43
July27
August16
September21
October49
November33
December22

Extreme weather and natural disasters in Turkey

Earthquakes

Turkey’s history is dotted with destructive earthquakes (the most ferocious, the infamous Antioch earthquake, happened in 526AD, killing around 250,000 people). Building damage has often been more extensive than it might have been, due to substandard architectural materials – but the Turkish government is pressing for more earthquake-resistant buildings.

Istanbul is one of the areas at greatest risk for a powerful earthquake. The probability of a major earthquake hitting the city is about 2% annually – putting it on about the same level as Tokyo or San Francisco.

Floods

Heavy flooding hits Turkey several times a year. Flash floods strike urban areas with worrying regularity due to heavy rainfall, inadequate drainage and ill-advised (and often illegal) construction on floodplains.

Forest fires

Forest fires are a real threat in the wooded areas of Turkey. The Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs released figures showing 3,755 forest fires in 2013, destroying 55km2 of forest.

Response times, warning systems and intervention measures in Turkey have been improving. But government response is still often criticised as slow and some communities have even accused the government of deliberate lack of assistance.

 

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